Lecture Notes & Powerpoint Slides

Lecture Notes

Check with your lecturer before referencing lecture notes. Some lecturers may not regard it as suitable.


Course lecture notes taken by a student are considered 'personal communication' as they are unpublished and 'non-recoverable'. For this reason, they are only cited within the text and not included in the Reference List. For example, for a lecture given by N. M. Blampied:

  • It is reported that ..... (N. M. Blampied, personal communication, May 5, 2011)

Powerpoint Slides

Since these are in a format that could be requested, they need to be treated more formally.


According to Blampied (2011) OR
Research indicates ... (Blampied, 2011)

Reference List

Blampied, N. M. (2011). Learning and behaviour change [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.learn.canterbury.ac.nz/

Course Reader

Your course reader will be made up of different types of sources. Cite them according to the source, not the reader as a whole. For example, if it is a journal article within the reader, it should be cited as a journal article.

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