Referencing lecture notes in the APA style

Lecture Notes & Powerpoint Slides

Lecture Notes

Check with your lecturer before referencing lecture notes. Some lecturers may not regard it as suitable.

In-text citation

Course lecture notes taken by a student are considered 'personal communication' as they are unpublished and 'non-retrievable'. For this reason, they are only cited within the text and not included in the Reference List. For example, lecture notes taken for a lecture given by Professor N. M. Blampied:

  • It is reported that ..... (Professor N. M. Blampied, personal communication, May 5, 2015)

Powerpoint Slides on Learn

Since these are in a format that can be retrieved, they need to be treated more formally.

In-text citation

Use the author's surname and date, e.g.

According to Blampied (2015) ... OR
Research indicates ... (Blampied, 2015)

Reference list

Blampied, N. M. (2015). Learning and behaviour change [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from

  • Include the file format in brackets after the lecture (e.g. PowerPoint slides, Word document)
  • Include the Learn homepage url if you retrieved the slides from Learn.